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Dietary risks among patients with arterial hypertension

Lenka Machálková*, Eva Reiterová**, Zuzana Janštová*, Věra Kubišová*, Adéla Stonawská*
* Palacký University in Olomouc, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Nursing
** Palacký University in Olomouc, Faculty of Health Sciences, Center for Science and Research

Abstract

MACHÁLKOVÁ, L. – REITEROVÁ, E. – JANŠTOVÁ, Z., – KUBIŠOVÁ, V. – STONAWSKÁ, A. Dietary risks among patients with arterial hypertension. In Ošetrovateľstvo: teória, výskum, vzdelávanie [online], 2018, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 52-57. Available on: http://www.osetrovatelstvo.eu/archiv/2018-rocnik-8/cislo-2/rizika-ve-stravovani-u-pacientu-s-arterialni-hypertenzi.

Arterial hypertension (AH) ranks among the most common diseases of the cardiovascular system. For a successful treatment, an adjustment of lifestyle is necessary – eating habits and physical activity in particular.

Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the eating habits among patients with AH and to establish risk areas.

Methodology: A quantitative design was applied using the questionnare Rapid Eating Assessment for Patients. The inclusion criteria were: Patients were aged 18+, without dietary limitation, consenting to research, whether they suffer – do not suffer from AH. The sample comprised of two groups of patients: one with AH and a control group. Patients were selected randomly in GP’s surgeries.

Results: Results from 374 patients (179 with AH, 195 without AH) indicate that there are risk areas in eating habits. On average, there were four risk areas out of 11 categories investigated. Among patients with AH, the risk factors lie in a reduced consumption of fruit and vegetables, dairy products, increased fat and fatty dairy products, and a sedentary lifestyle. In the control group, there was a reduced consumption of whole grains, frequent consumption of fatty sweets and snacks, soft drinks, confectionery and frequent consumption of high-sodium foods. A highly significant relation was found between age and occurrence of hypertension (C = 0.45; p < 0.001) in men (C = 0.44; p < 0.001) and in women (C = 0.45; p < 0.001).

Conclusion: The results indicate risk areas in eating habit of patients with AH. Therefore, it is necessary to repeatedly educate patients with AH about eating habits.

Keywords: aterial hypertension, eating, education, nurses, primary health care, REAP questionnare

Full text (Slovak language)

Contact

PhDr. Lenka Machálková, Ph.D.

Ústav Ošetřovatelství, FZV UP v Olomouci
Hněvotínská 3 
775 15 Olomouc 
Česká republika
E-mail: lenka.machalkova@upol.cz

Received: 23rd October 2018
Accepted: 15th November 2018